1900- antigram, n. An anagram 
that has an opposite or 
contradictory meaning to the 
original word or phrase.
1597–1799 bitling, n. A very small bit or piece.

1611–edible, adj. & n. Eatable, fit to be eaten.
a1340– curious, adj. & adv. Desirous of seeing or knowing; eager to learn; inquisitive. Often with condemnatory connotation: Desirous of knowing what one has no right to know…
1377 dido, n.¹ ? An old story, a thrice-told tale.

1.a. Old English– friand, n. A person with whom one has developed a close and informal relationship of mutual trust and intimacy; (more generally) a close acquaintance. Often with adjective indicating the closeness of the relationship, as best, good, close, etc. 

Usually one of a collection of such acquaintances; not normally extended to lovers or relations. 

2.b. Old English– freond, n. A person who takes the same side as another in war, a political contest or debate, etc.; an ally.

1385– happen, v. Of an event, action, etc.: to take place, to come to pass, occur.
1.a. 1668– group, n. With less or no implication of deliberate arrangement or composition. A number of things.

2.a. 1706– group, v. transitive. To bring together as a group, to make a group of; to position (people or things) close together so as to form a collective unity.

c1225– image, n. A thing that stands for or is taken to stand for something else; a symbol, emblem.
Figure 1

1.a. 1428– jamb, n. Architecture. Each of the side posts of a doorway, window, or chimney-piece, upon which rests the lintel.

2.a. 1706– jamb, variant of jam, v.¹ transitive. To press, squeeze, or crowd (a number of objects) together in a compact mass; to pack with force or vigour; to force together.

2.b. 1805– jamb, variant of jam, n.¹ The action of jamming; the fact or condition of being jammed, or tightly packed or squeezed, so as to prevent movement; a crush, a squeeze.
Figure 2

1969– lorazepam, n. A benzodiazepine, C15H10Cl2N2O2, which is used as a tranquillizer and hypnotic. 
Old English– kite, n. A toy consisting of a light frame, usually of wood, with paper or other light thin material stretched upon it; mostly in the form of an isosceles rhombus.

1.a. 1565– morose, adj.¹ & n. Of persons, or their attributes, behaviour, etc.: sullen, gloomy, sour-tempered, unsocial.

1.b. 1645– morose, adj.² Theology. Of a thought or feeling: wrongly or sinfully prolonged or dwelt upon. Now rare.

1.a. 1755- nickel, n.¹ A hard, silver-white, malleable metallic chemical element, used extensively in alloys, batteries, and for plating because of its resistance to oxidation: symbol, Ni; at. no., 28.

2.a. 1755- nickel, n.² A U.S. or Canadian coin made of an alloy of nickel and copper and equal to 5 cents.

3.a. 1872- nickel, v. transitive. To plate with nickel.
1616– obturate, v. transitive. To block or stop up; to close or obstruct; (Dentistry) to fill a root canal.
c1225– price, n. The amount of money (or a material equivalent) expected, required, or given in payment for a commodity or service.

1.a. c1225– question, n. A sentence worded or expressed so as to elicit information from a person; a query, an enquiry.

1.b. a1470– question, v. transitive. To ask a question or questions of (a person), esp. in an official context; to interrogate. Also in extended use.

a1325– quest, n.² A long or arduous search for something.

Old English– rind, n.¹ The peel or skin of a fruit, vegetable, root, etc., now esp. when forming a tough, fleshy outer casing or layer.

Figure 3

1.a. c1225– reason, n.¹ The power of the mind to think and form valid judgments by a process of logic; the mental faculty which is used in adapting thought or action to comprehend, analyze, and make sense of information and experiences in a rational and coherent manner.

2.a. a1400– reason, v. To think in a connected or logical manner; to employ the faculty of reason in forming conclusions. intransitive.

Old English–1522 sale, n.¹ A hall or 
spacious chamber; a king's or noble's 
lodging, palace, castle; occasionally 
a tent.

[Denoting an elongated thing regarded primarily as undivided, without emphasis on its parts, especially when dragged or trailed.]

1.a. a1393– train, n.¹ An elongated back of a robe or skirt, or a separate long piece of material attached at the back of formal dress, which trails behind on the ground.

1.b. 1559– train, n.² The tail of a comet; (also) a luminous trail left by the passage of a meteor through the atmosphere.
2.a. c1425– train, v.¹ transitive. To subject to discipline and instruction for development of character, behaviour, or skill… To give sustained instruction and practice to…

1961– Valium, n. A proprietary name for the drug diazepam, C16H13N2OCl, used esp. as an anti-anxiety agent, hypnotic, and muscle relaxant
Old English–1540 umb, variant of umbe, prep. & adv. Around, about.

1568– umber, n.³ A brown earth used as a pigment.

1688– umbilicus, n. Anatomy. The central depression in the abdomen, marking the point of attachment of the umbilical cord; the navel.

1426– umbrage, n. spec. Shade or shadow cast by trees or the like.

1609– umbrella, n. A portable protection against bad weather, made of silk or similar material fastened on slender ribs, which are attached radially to a stick and can be opened or closed, providing shelter from rain or sun as needed.

1892– woodruff, n.² A key whose cross-section is part circular (to fit into a curved keyway in a shaft) and part rectangular.

Old English– woof, n.¹ The threads that cross from side to side of a web, at right angles to the warp

Old English– wool, n. The fine soft curly hair forming the fleecy coat of the domesticated sheep (and similar animals), characterized by its property of felting.
Figure 5

Figure 6

1952– Xerox, n. A proprietary name for photocopiers; also used loosely (attributive and absol.) to denote any photocopy.

Old English– yellow, adj. & n. Of a colour intermediate between orange and green in the spectrum. 1674– zest, n.¹ figurative. Enthusiasm for and enjoyment of something, esp. as displayed in speech or action; gusto, relish.

Figure 7

Figure 8

definitions borrowed (and occasionally modified) from Oxford English Dictionary, and Collins Dictionary.

video credits: Jordan Hundelt Director and Editor, Trisha Pickelhaupt Camera Operator